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Este trabajo es parte de una investigación desarrollada en el Instituto de Investigaciones Socioeconómicas de la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de la UNSJ. El objetivo central consiste en analizar a partir de 1995, la gestión ambiental del Estado en San Juan – Argentina – en sus dimensiones política y normativa, para detectar fortalezas y debilidades con relación a un modelo de desarrollo sustentable.

La propuesta metodológica corresponde a un diseño descriptivo – comprensivo y enfatiza una estrategia cualitativa. Las técnicas aplicadas han sido la observación documental, análisis de contenido y entrevistas en profundidad.

La gestión ambiental es abordada en las dimensiones política y jurídica, en una doble perspectiva: objetiva, basada en la normativa y otros registros documentales y subjetivos, desde opiniones de legisladores y funcionarios con incumbencia ambiental. Algunos ejes centrales: concepciones sobre ambiente, vinculación ambiente- economía, alcances del desarrollo sustentable, actores participantes en la gestión ambiental, papel del estado, sociedad y mercado, rasgos de política ambiental, características de legislación, racionalidades presentes.

Resultados: Existe una política ambiental aunque no explícita, unívoca y homogénea. en todos los agentes estatales involucrados en decisiones ambientales. No se verifica un efectivo cumplimiento de las funciones asignadas por la Constitución Provincial que le atribuye al estado un rol ineludible en materia ambiental

Hay presión de agentes económicos en decisiones estatales, en cambio es escasa la participación de la sociedad aunque haya crecido en los últimos tiempos.

La debilidad de la política ambiental se lee en los siguientes indicadores relevantes: cumplimiento incompleto de la normativa, limitado control sobre conflictos, ausencia de la dimensión ambiental en escasa planificación, limitados recursos humanos y económicos afectados, predominio de la lógica economicista sobre la ambiental, una sociedad escasamente sensibilizada y escaso poder relativo del área encargada de la gestión ambiental, carente de presupuesto propio y de capacidad de coordinación de una estructura administrativa excesivamente atomizada.

 

Politic and Normative Dimensions of Environmental Management

 

ABSTRACT

This paper is based on a research project developed in the Institute of Social and Economic Research at the Social Science Department, National University of San Juan. Its main aim is to analyse the role played by the State since 1995 in managing environmental issues in San Juan, Argentina. The paper concentrates on politics and normative dimensions of state intervention and highlights its strengths and weaknesses in relation to a sustainable development model.

Methodologically, this research adopted a descriptive and comprehensive approach on the base of qualitative strategies. The main techniques for data collection were ‘literature and document review’, ‘contents analysis’ and ‘in-depth interviews’. Environmental management is analysed from the political and legal points of view, combining two perspectives: (1) objective analysis, based on ‘norms’ (law) and official documents; and (2) subjective analysis, based on the opinions of congress representatives and civil servants who work on environmental issues.

The research concentrates on different aspects, as follows: distinct conceptions of environment; relation between environment – economy; notions of sustainable development; actors who participate in environmental management; the role played by the state, civil society and market; basic aspects of environmental policy; characteristics of environment law; different approaches on this issue.

Results: There is an environment policy although it is not explicit, unique and homogeneous for all those civil servants involved in environmental issues and decisions. There is not an effective fulfilment of the functions stipulated by the Provincial Constitution, which gives the State a crucial role in this field.

While the economic actors push on government decision making process, the civil society participation is very weak, although this has changed during recent times.

The weaknesses of the government environmental policy is observed through out different indictors, as follow: norms are not fully fulfilled; there is a limited control on conflicts; the environmental dimension is rarely present on planning process; human and economic resources are not enough; the economic logic undermines environmental issues; civil society is not very sensitive about environmental problems; people in charge of controlling those problems have not power at all, lack own budget and they belong to a very small administrative organs, which are poorly co-ordinated with other areas.

 

Graciela Ceretti

Zulma García

Lo político y lo normativo en la gestión ambiental

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